Characterization of the Solid Waste stream of the Tohono O\'odham Nation. (Features).
by：Taian Lamination Film2020-10-05
The United States covers an area of 2,834,000 acres, extending from the south of Casa Grande, Arizona to the United States. S. /Mexico border. There are 74 villages in 11 districts, with a total population of about 8,906 people (U. S. Census Bureau, 2000). The whole country believes that harmony with the Earth is essential to the well-being of the Earth. being. Over the past 30 years, lifestyle changes have clashed with this belief. More and more people use convenience items that have not been used before. These new products produce waste that odans have not dealt with before. By 1996, most households in the country had treated their solid waste through open-air incineration and dumping ( Oodan country, tuhonuo, 1996). Many houses have burnbarrels and each village has a community dump. As soon as these dumps are dug up, maintenance is almost not provided. When ditches are filled, the waste is burned to extend the useful life of the dump. As there is no control, the dump is a source of air and water pollution, and the surrounding land is often covered with wind-borne garbage. The state recognizes the need for a better approach to the treatment of solid waste and has promulgated the Code of solid waste management (Solid waste)in 1997 ( Oodan country, tuhonuo, 1997). The solid waste code addresses the state\'s desire to manage solid waste in a way that protects the environment, political integrity and national economic security, as well as health and safety, as well as the welfare of its members. When this legislation was enacted, the state voluntarily decided to comply with the laws of the United States. S. Solid Waste Disposal ActS. C. 6901, as amended by the resource protection and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA, 1976). The solid waste code creates a collection system for 9 of the 11 districts. The demand for solid waste in the other two regions is met through private contracts at the regional level. However, the two regions are still subject to the requirements of the solid waste code. The open-air dump was closed and replaced by a garbage bin, which the state began to transport to a regulated landfill. In order to prevent pollution, the solid waste Code explicitly prohibits the treatment of more than 1 gallon of liquid and certain hazardous wastes, including domestic hazardous wastes, in a waste collection system (HHW) Biomedical waste, asbestos and tires ( Oodan country, tuhonuo, 1997). To date, the response to the adoption of the solid waste code has been positive. In fact, members of the state recently voteddollar-per-month-per- Family expenses to support solid waste activities. Illegal dumping is a long-standing problem. SWMP is using its outreach program to control dumping while continuing to provide education on solid waste regulations. The current disposal procedure SWMP collects waste once a week from 600 residential bins and twice a week from most non-residential sources. Non-residential sources are mainly limited to sales centers, including all government buildings, two schools, one prison, Health Services clinic in India, United States of AmericaS. Post office in America. S. Social Security Office, 1 supermarket, 3 convenience stores, 1 bank, 1 cafe and onevideo store. Three gas stations, four convenience stores, a casino, five schools and two small clinics are non-residential sources other than sales. Methods in the study of waste representation, waste is usually divided into potential and non-residential categories with appropriate categories, such as distance from the population center ( Rathje & Murphy, 1992). Two categories were selected for this study: residential and non-residential. According to village location and socio-economic status, residential categories are further divided into three sub-categories, non-residential categories are divided into two sub-categories: \"supermarket\" and \"other businesses (Table 1). The classification is as follows: 1. Population center-- Sales are home to the state\'s government, including most business activities. 2. Main road Village-- St Simon is located within 35 miles of Sellsand on the main road. Sales are further divided into families for the purpose of collection- Owned and Leased units. Supermarket waste logistics is a sub-category of its own, because it is very different from other non-residential entities. 3. Rural villages-- The dams of Pisinemo, Gu Vo, and Menager are 32, 53 and 72 miles from Sells, respectively, located outside the main roads and considered rural. Menager\'s dam is about five miles from Mexico. Representative- The bins collected by sample collection SWMP are classified on the normal scheduled pick-up day. To prevent the garbage and mixture from being compacted with other samples, the bins are transported to the sorting area instead of being emptied into the garbage truck. Residents were not informed that the study was under way and therefore did not anticipate a change in the typical waste logistics. Garbage for all residential samples is made up of garbage for one week, not residential samples representing garbage for one week Half a week of accumulation A bin is sampled, sorted and weighed at a time, and all waste flows only in one direction through the work area ( Primary sorting, secondary sorting, weighing station). Rathje andMurphy (1992) It has been proved that the accuracy of garbage classification depends more on the accuracy of the classification than on the quantity of garbage classification; As a result, the study follows the procedures used by the University of Arizona garbage program. Primary sorting waste is placed on the primary sorting table, where materials are divided into 15 main categories --- Glass, plastic, paper, food, code number, metal, wood, durable goods, hazardous waste, diapers, textiles, rubber, miscellaneous, \"Other Mixed Inorganic\" and \"other mixed organic\" \"To facilitate the classification process, these main categories are different. After the first level classification, the materials are passed to the second level classification group and further classified into 31 categories based on the materials used by the garbage project ( Rathje & Murphy, 1992)(Table 2). Weighing after secondary sorting, the material is transferred to the obvious tared container and weighed on the electronic scale. After each bin is sorted and weighed, the waste is disposed of, the work area is cleaned, cleaned and prepared for the next classification. As a result, the total amount of solid waste generated by workers was 1,931. 37 pounds and 596 of the house. 14 pounds of non-residential waste. The approximate value of the total national waste is carried out with a proportional factor, converting the sorted value to tons generated per week and month, and converting to pounds generated per person per day, for example, the sale of three bins in residential areas accounts for 3% of the total number of bins (93) In the sales community. The garbage volume of these three bins is 683 a week. 44 pounds. Expand this proportion to the entire residential population, generating £ 21,187 of waste, or £ 1 per week. 04 lbs per person per day (ppd). With seven- Thursday- As the basis for calculation, 42 sets of residential sales were generated. Waste 37 tons per month. The amount of daily waste generated in other villages is also calculated in the same way, as shown in Table 3. For the \"other business\" category, each sorted bin is one of the two bins picked up every week, so approaching the total amount of waste generated requires doubling the number of sorted. Supermarket bins are one of the three bins picked up every week, so the number of sorting must be doubled. In addition, seven bins of non-residential garbage account for about 12% of the total number of non-residential garbage bins (60). Scaling also illustrates the fact that 38. 95 pounds of non-residential waste generated per month (Table 4). In order to find the total tonnage generated by the country every month, the total population of the country was calculated by sampling the scale. The size of the population included in the waste feature is 3,920. Considering the size of 906 of the country\'s population The numerical calculation is 98. 8513,920x8,906 224. 58. In October 1998, the average monthly ton of toMay 1999 was 242 tons, ranging from 193 to 368 tons per month. Scaledvalue is relatively close to the actual average and is within the range of the monthly value. The characteristic of garbage flow residential area has a daily garbage production rate from 1. 93 ppd in Menager\'s Dam is 0. 55 ppd in Saint Simon (Table 3). In rural areas, as the distance from sales increases, the handling fee Day increases. A common explanation for higher waste generation rates in rural areas is that people who live farther away buy more packaged food than people who live in the population center, where there may be more fresh food Dahab & Woldt, 1994). Table 3 gives the amount of packaging waste generated on a daily basis, defined as glass, plastic and metal containers; plastic film; cardboard; And cardboard (U. S. Environmental Protection BureauU. S. EPA], 2001). Sales, Guwu, Pisinemo packingwaste rate is similar; Menager\'s dam is more expensive. Looking specifically at cans (tin) However, plastic containers show that most common storage containers are actually produced at higher ppd rates. Gu Wo and Menager\'s dam produced more food waste than other communities. The menagel Dam is a community of homes that needs modernization. Food may deteriorate more easily. The electricity generation rate in the San Simon community is expected to be similar to or slightly higher than sales, but significantly lower than sales. As can be seen from table 3, St. Simon\'s volume of packaged waste is much lower than any other community, which accounts for a lower proportion overall. A visual inspection of St. Simon found several gardens, but the community may be buying most of the food from the supermarket on sale. Many residents work in Sells; Maybe some packing garbage is being processed there. At this point, no other specific explanation can be given for the low generation rate. Table 5 gives an overview of sales waste logistics as an example of residential waste logistics. There are many kinds of materials for residential waste logistics, but mainly food, metal and glass containers. Almost no decoration in the yard was found in the garbage, probably because of the non-landscaped desert environment surrounding the house. Asimilar results were found in the Kaibab safute nation, weighing less than 2% and 19. Tucson, Arizona 7% ( Hughes Hotel & Suites Austin, 1998). The \"hazardous waste\" category includes any items that may be harmful to people, animals or the environment, such as sharks ( Mainly subcutaneous injection needle) Hazardous chemicals. In addition to a residential waste logistics, all the garbage was found. As found in other studies on rural communities, most sharks are stored directly in garbage rather than in containers (U. S. EPA, 2001). Less containers of hazardous materials ( Detergent included) Found, very few HHW. All containers ( Bleach, detergent, nail polish, roofing material and soap/wax) Only one nail polish bottle sold contains a negligible amount of liquid. The total number of household batteries in the whole solid waste logistics classification is less than 30--not even 0. 04%, significantly lower than the percentage found in other studies ( Wilson & Rathje, 1989). The weight score of HHW is 0. 11%, also significantly lower than the percentage found in other studies. For the kebabuite nation, the Garbage Project found 0. 69 percent (Hughes etal. , 1998). The Garbage Project found that in more than 10 years, humans were from 0. 2 percent to 0. 6 percent (Rathje, 1997). Other commercial waste streams. Waste logistics in the Legislative Building is described in Table 5 as an example of non-residential waste logistics. The waste logistics of government buildings is mainly paper-based. There are residential items such as diapers in several bins. These may be due to residential contamination or more likely to be due to the prevalence of young children being brought to the workplace. In commercial bins, even fewer harmful substances are found. Similarly, all containers except one oil container contain only negligible liquids. Supermarket. The waste logistics of supermarkets is mainly composed of food, paper and plastic. The proportion of food waste is the largest, with a total of 64. It mainly consists of expired drinks such as milk and juice. In the four days after the classification, more than 90% of the food became delicious. Percentage of paper, 11. The price is very low because the supermarket has recycled cardboard. Waste in the plastic Category--13. 24 percent-- It mainly consists of plastic film and non-recyclable plastic. Comparison with the United StatesS. Although it is useful to divide waste into residential and non-residential categories when studying community waste generation, public data on urban waste includes commercial waste. Recent AmericaS. EPA reports on the generation of solid waste in cities include waste generated by schools, businesses, institutions and prisons on solid waste in cities. Excluding HHW, industrial waste, biosolids, automotive and construction waste (U. S. EPA, 2001). Comparison of the United StatesS. According to the definition of urban solid waste given above and the category given in the United States, national average waste generation and waste generationS. The EPA report, as shown in Table 6. In addition to the \"food\" and \"yard decor\" categories, similar trends have emerged. The amount of food waste is affected by the proportion of supermarket garbage, accounting for more than 26% of the total amount of non-residential garbage. Even if commercial waste is included, the national production rate is only 1. 66 ppd, contrast 4. Ppd in the United States in 62 years (U. S. EPA, 2001). This difference can be attributed to several factors. The country is not a one-off society. Items are often reused several times. The traditional way of life emphasizes harmony with the environment. Part of the SWMP education program consists of older people telling children and young people about traditional lifestyles and respect for the land. Another contribution to the low birth rate may be that the average income in the United States is lower than in the United StatesS. On average, as a result, the consumption capacity decreases, resulting in a decrease in purchases and a decrease in waste (U. S. Census Bureau, 2000). The categories of recyclable items include newspapers, cardboard, magazines, mail/cardboard, and polybendiester (PET), high- Density Polyethylene (HDPE) , Polystyrene, clear colored glass, aluminum tank, plastic film, Iron Tank and black scrap. Only items that are quite likely to be recycled are considered recyclable; This category does not include items that may be recyclable but are not actually recycled. Recyclable items are made up of 24. 88% to 52. 23percent (by weight) In the residential garbage flow, the sales ratio is the highest, from 9. 31% to 88. 97% of residential waste, the highest proportion of legislative buildings (Table 7). Table 7 gives the first three recyclable materials found in each waste logistics. In addition to the supermarket stream, all non-residential waste streams have a paper product as the most important recyclable item. The mixed colored glass of guwo and Sellshad is the most common recyclable glass (12. 09% and 10. 71% respectively). Paper from Menager\'s Dam and San Simon is the most common recyclable material-magazines at 5. 12% and newspaper 8. 96% respectively. At the age of 11, the black cans are the most recyclable. 19 percent. In addition to the sale of black tin cans, all villages can be recycled, which may reflect the distance from the supermarket. Since waste disposal is such an expensive business, the Legislative Council believes that reducing waste generation is the first and best line of defense. By implementing the traditional- Life Education program The state is firmly committed to building new housing and modern bathrooms in existing houses. Population is shifting from dirt Floor housing for modern residential use rarely uses convenient cleaning supplies, among which there is a great potential to rely on convenient supplies. Thetraditional- Life projects include traditional methods of carrying out cleaning activities in the hope of reducing the use of cleaning agents and the generation of containers. SWMP\'s pollution prevention program also highlights simple ways to reduce waste logistics, such as using two sides of a piece of paper to reuse containers and buying only what is needed. Unfortunately, most of the waste in the residential waste logistics is caused by the packaging provided by the manufacturer. Recycling is the most viable option for these items. Most of the commercial waste of recyclable materials is generated in sales and helps to recover recyclable items. Recently, an office paper recycling plan was implemented and the cardboard plan was expanded. Supermarkets collect grocery bags now (a plastic film). The institutions of these projects are reducing commercial waste logistics. SWMP is currently looking for other recycling opportunities. Tucson has metal recyclers about 70 miles from Sells. Newspapers and glass must be shipped to Phoenix, while the only plastic market is in Southern California. The most feasible option at this time is the aluminum mechanism Center available. Since a buy- This material comes with value, and this effort may be economically feasible. The collection plan of iron cans and glass will further reduce the logistics of residential waste. The necessity of transportation limits the profitability of these projects; However, reducing tonnage costs, operating and maintenance costs for waste collection vehicles may offset collection and transportation costs. The best way is to find potential end-use for the state\'s substances. Due to the current upgrade of the bathroom and the installation of the septic system, ground glass can be reused at night. A septic- The system leachfield consists of a series of ditches containing perforated pipes filled in the gravel layer. A standard immersion mine requires gravel of 33 cubic size, and the state proposes to replace it with broken glass. A glass grinder can be used for pilot testing and final implementation at low cost. Repeated use of glass will have a great impact: 1) These materials will be recycled and transferred from waste logistics. 2) Resources will be saved as the state will not ship materials to other places and will not have to ship or mine gravel for septic tanksSystem upgrade. Food waste compost is not widely used in the country. The only place to see signs of compost is on the hospital floor next to a small vegetable garden, where there are several wooden cases that are different from other materials. However, this does not look like a very active project, and while compost is the ideal way to reduce food waste, it is not a very practical option at the moment. The desert environment is not easy to compost, and there is little demand for compost materials. In the United States, supermarkets often send food to local food banks (Heumann, 1999). The supermarket for Sale threw away a lot of food. The waste features carried out in this study indicate that the main reason food is thrown away is due to expiration rather than deterioration. One of SWMP\'s goals is to donate this food to families across the country. The main issue is the timely donation of due dates. Initial contact with supermarkets shows that they are willing to try some form of cooperation. SWMP also tries to find out if people raising livestock are interested in feeding food to animals. There are very few hazardous wastes found in waste logistics. Previous investigations into open dumps also found very few HHW containers. Zeiss (1994) The weight score of HHW treated by rural communities was found to be 3. 6%, compared with 0. 87 percent ( Container included) Found for the country In 1999, because of the low percentage of HHW, a drop station for antifreeze, batteries, oil and paint replaced a complete HHW collection facility in January 2002S. EPA enables the state to purchase the necessary equipment, set up outreach locations in other regions and provide education. Following the waste identification, SWMP established an education program focusing on the proper use and disposal of alternatives and hazardous materials. The U. S. The EPA grant allows SWMP to expand its outreach program with a focus on delivering presentations to school and community events and conferences. Conclusion The state has successfully transitioned from open-air stacking and incineration of waste to the collection of waste in garbage bins. Residents are concerned about solid waste management and are committed to successful projects. Per capita solid waste in the United States is far less than in the United States. S. communities-- It seems far from a \"throw- This study provides valuable data for the development of solid waste management objectives and tracking the progress of these objectives. It provides opportunities for recycling and information on special management issues that should be addressed, such as reducing food waste. The distance from the market is too far away, limiting the types of options available, and the state must develop innovative methods to transfer materials from waste logistics. At present, in the installation of septic tank system, a feasible method of glass reuse is promising. This shift helps to preserve and protect the health and integrity of the state\'s members and the land. Thanks: SWMP and SERI would like to thank Wilson W Hughes, the University of Arizona garbage program and the students and SWMPstaff who are involved in this program. References Dahab, M. F. , & Woldt, W. E. (1994). Solid waste prevention strategies in rural areas. 16. 49-Environmental Professionals56. Heumann, J. (1999). From behind the aisle: solid waste management at grocery stores. Waste Age, 30(2), 83-88. Hughes, W. W. , Makowsky, L. , Austin, D. E. , & Johnson, Y. (1998). A solid waste assessment prepared for the Panter Indian cable band. AZ Tucson: Bureau of Applied Research in Anthropology, University of Arizona. Rathje, W. (1997). Garbage Project hand- Hazardous waste in residential waste: a ten-year review. AZ Tucson: Bureau of Applied Research in Anthropology, University of Arizona. Rathje, W. , & Murphy C. (1992). Rubbish! Garbage archaeology. New York: Harper Collins 42 US bill on conservation and restoration of resourcesS. C. [section][section]82-6901- Section 6991 (1976). Tuhonoodan country. (1996). Solid waste management program. AZ: Author. Tuhonoodan country. (1997). Tohono o\'dham solid waste management specification. AZ: Author. Tuhonoodan country. (1999). Census of planning department. AZ: Author. U. S. Census Bureau. (2000). US Census data, 2000. Washington, D. C. S. Ministry of Commerce. html (8 Nov. 2002). U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, solid waste and emergency response. (2001). Solid waste in American cities: 1999 data (EPA53O-R-01-014). Washington, D. C. S. Environmental Protection Bureau. Wilson, D. , & Rathje, W. (1989). Structure and Dynamics of household hazardous waste. Journal of resource management and technology, 17 (4), 200-206. Zeiss, C. (1994). Household hazardous waste Discard mode and management options. Journal of Planning and Development, 1202), 87-103. Related articles: practical things! * Tohono o\'dham country occupies 2,834,000 acres of land from South Casa Grande, Arizona to the United StatesS. /Mexico border. It has about 8,906 people. * More and more people have used convenient items in the past 30 years. * These new products produce waste that odans have not handled before. * Before 1996, many houses had barrels of burning, and each village had a community dump. * Maintenance is rarely provided once these dumps are excavated. * When ditches are filled, the waste is burned to extend the useful life of the dump. Garbage dumps are the source of air and water pollution. borne trash. * In 1997, the state promulgated the solid waste regulations and voluntarily decided to comply with the provisions of the United StatesS. Solid Waste Disposal Act as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)of 1976. * The dump that was opened was closed and replaced by the bin. * The state has begun to ship waste to regulated landfill sites. * The solid waste Code expressly prohibits the treatment of more than 1 gallon of liquids and certain hazardous wastes in the waste collection system, including domestic hazardous wastes, Biomedical wastes, asbestos and tires. * The transition helps to maintain and protect the health and integrity of the country\'s members and the land. * Waste disposal, however, is an expensive business and reducing waste generation is the best way to defend against it. * A study of residential and commercial waste logistics found that garbage produced by members of Tohono o\'dham countries is almost one The United States produces the third largest amount of urban solid waste per person per day. * Much less hazardous material and yard decoration found compared to the USS. average. * However, there are limited options for source reduction. * Most of the residential waste comes from packaging materials. * Recycling opportunities exist, but recycling opportunities are hindered because they are far from the market. As a result, the state is looking at innovative ways to utilize on-site recyclable materials. * In an alternative to gravel, for example, grinding glass can be used in septic tank systems. * In order to help reduce the production of solid waste, an educational project focusing on the traditional Odam lifestyle has been implemented. Correspondent: Anne Marie. Environmental Research Institute of Sonora Wolf, 3202 E. Grant Rd. Tucson, AZ 85716. E- Postage: aawolf @ seriaz. org.