Hyperbranched polyglycerol as an additive for water-based printing ink.
The printing ink is displayed based on.
Overspending polyglycerin ,(BPG)
Synthesis through the ring of Yin-
1-open polymerization of shrink glycerin
Starting with ethanol.
The supporting structure of BPG is introduced and described.
Moore et al confirmed the existence of linear, branch-like, and terminal units. (
Sci surfing Sci 88 (3):213-236, 2013)[sup. 13]
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum.
Then BPG is used as a performance additive in the water
Printing ink based on Flexo.
The influence of a small amount of overspent BPG on the color of printing ink was studied, and the whole-
Color area, total color difference ,【DELTA][E. sub. ab. sup. *]
, And the gloss of the dry ink film.
The dry and wet friction resistance of the overprint samples was studied.
Studies have shown that BPG can improve the dyeing resistance of printed matter to dry and wet friction.
Overspending polyglycerin, printing quality, performance additives, dyeing performance introduction flexo printing technology is suitable for printing paper materials (
Coating and uncoated)
And hole-free substrates, including metallized plastic films used in the packaging industry, using low
Viscosity and fastdrying fluids. (1)
There are three types of inks for these applications, namely, water-based inks, solvent inksbased and UV-curable ink.
The attention of the printing industry is focused on the production of water
In order to reduce the evaporation of organic solvents in the environment, printing ink is based.
Advantages of water-
The foundation of the ink is that there is little cost to the water, and the water does not pollute the environment.
Printing with water-
There is a certain problem based on the Flexo Ink, because of the water-
The base ink on the plastic film is worse, and the dry and tensile properties of the over-printed plastic film are usually lower than those with solventbased inks. (2)
Another problem is that the surface tension of water is very high (72 mN [m. sup. -1])
Compared with organic solvents (about 20 mN[m. sup. -1]).
This means that the water will not wet the printable base, especially the plastic film.
It is well known that the surface tension of the flexo printing ink must be lower than the surface free energy of the plastic film to allow proper wetting and adhesion between the ink film and the plastic film.
Generally, the surface energy of polyethylene and polypropylene films is lower than that of 32 mN [m. sup. -1].
Therefore, it is necessary to add Moistening Agent or organic compound
Solvent of water
Ink that reduces surface tension and achieves Proper wetting and printing bonding.
Overrun polymer is a new type of polymer.
They are spherical, highly branching large molecules with a large number of functional groups.
The overrun polymer exhibits multi-dispersion and irregularities in terms of branching and structure ,(3)
They can usually use one-
Step procedure for high yield.
The overrun polymer has unique chemical and physical properties. (4-8)
The performance of the overspent polymer is usually affected by the structure and structure of the polymer, from the back end and the functional end-
Branching degree, molecule-
Weight distribution, etc.
Today, the most popular overspent polymer is an overspent polymer with oh-based end groups, such
Based on the shrink, I. e. , polyglycerol)andpolyesters (based on 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)
I. e. ,Boltorn[TM]). (9)
However, overspent polyglycerin is one of the most promising in overspent polymers because of its biocompatibility, environmental friendliness, biodegradable and non-toxic properties. (10,11)
Sucrose (2-10 U)
FDA approval has been obtained; (12)
As a result, overspent polyglycerin is an ideal compound for biomedical applications. (13,14)
In addition, the overspent polyglycerin has been used as a surface active agent in the liquid for the treatment of flat printing plates (15)
As organic solvent in water inkjet
Printing ink to prevent paper deformation. (16)
In previous work, it has been shown that there are commercially available overspent polyester such as polymers from [TM]
Family, can improve the dyeing of solvent-resistant friction
Printing ink. (17,18)
Unlike polyester, polyglycerin is more stable for acid or alkaline hydrolysis (19);
Therefore, they can be used as performance additives in water
Compared with polyester, the advantage of polyester is that it has significant solubility in water due to the functional oh base.
Overspending fromglycidol oligoglycerols and polyglycerols can be aggregated according to the pairs of anion (12,20,21)or acationic (22)mechanism.
The polymer obtained by ion polymerization of shrinking glycerin exhibits a relatively controllable moderately narrow molecule-
Weight distribution with controlled degree branches.
However, the cation polymerization of shrink glycerin results in relatively low molecular weight, more irregular end-gan grease with structure and branching.
The purpose of this study is to provide a new application for overspent ether.
In this work, overspending Poly (BPG)
, Used to modify the properties of water-
Printing ink, including the color properties and firmness of the printing ink.
BPG\'s impact on several prints
Quality parameters (
Optical density, color value, gloss and mechanical properties)wasestimated.
All reagents synthesized by experimental material BPG are purchased from sigma-Aldrich (Poznari, Poland)
In the absence of further purification, use as received. The water-based printing-ink sample (Process)
Provided by michael Huber (Poland).
It is recommended to print this ink on plastic film.
For printing, oriented polypropylene (oPP)
Used the movie.
The plastic film is activated by the corona treatment, they are transparent and the thickness is 20 [micro]
M of OPP and micro]m for PET.
The chemical structure of BPG characterized by BPG was characterized on Biorad FTS 165 infrared spectrometer using KBr particles. 1H and [sup. 13]
At room temperature, four polysilicone is used as internal standard and tritium solvent (DMSO-[d. sub. 6])
On the Varian VXR 400 MHz spectrometer;
The spectrum was analyzed using MestReNovav. 6,2,0-7238(
Mestrelab researchL)software. MALDI-
TOF mass spectrometry is the UltraFlex spectrometer DHB of measured don Brook (2,5-
As a calibration standard for matrix and brookpeptide (1047. 19-3149. 57 Da)as a calibrant;
The spectrum was analyzed with flexAnalysis v. 3. 3(
Brookdale Tony company)
And Polymerix v. 2. 0 (
Polymer Synthesis of sbpg by ring
An open aggregate reaction similar to the previously reported method. (20,23)Potassium (0. 4 g)
Dissolve in 1-butanol (10. 0 g)
500 ml flaskequipped at room temperature with magnetic mixer, thermometer.
Then, shrink the glycerin (50. 0g)was added drop-
Wise with a speed of milliliters [h. sup. -1]
Add a mixture using a dosing pump.
Mix at 80 [stir for 7 hoursdegrees]C.
Next, the product is dissolved in methanol and neutralised by cation filtrationexchange resin.
Methanol is distilled at 40degrees]
C. under decompression (0. 5 mmHg).
The resulting product is a colorless, viscous liquid. FTIR (KBr): 3374 (-OH); 2930, 2872 (-C[H. sub. 2]); 1117 (C-O); 669(C-H)[cm. sup. -1]. [sup. 1]H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-[d. sub. 6], [DELTA]): 0. 86 (t, 3H,C[H. sub. 3]), 1. 24-1. 36 (m, 2H, C[H. sub. 2]), 1. 38-1. 49 (m, 2H,C[H. sub. 2]), 3. 2-3. 7 (
Polyglycerin proton), 4. 4-4. 8 (1H, OH)ppm.
Ink preparation and printing by drop-
While stirring constantly, it is wise to add the calculated weight of BPG to the pure process ink.
The quality score of BPG is 0.
01, because the best print quality is obtained after adding 0.
Overspending polyester of 01. (17,18)
Then, stir the ink for 30 minutes using a mechanical mixer (Silverson,UK).
Flow properties of printing ink (
Original printing ink and ink added to BPG)
Specified by the flow time in the flow Cup (
Volume 100 ml, outlet diameter 4mm)
According to ISO standard. (24)
Measurements were made on degrees]C;
The relative error of the measurement is less than 3%, and the moving viscosity is 19 [+ or -]0.
5 s printing ink.
Printing with bulletproof instruments in the laboratory (
TMI machines, UK).
60 m printing speed [min. sup. -1]
The printing participation of OPP and PET plastic films was 71 and 48, respectively.
The difference between the printing joint and the printing pressure between the substrate (printing base)
And printing plates, depending on the thickness of the film;
The bonding pressure decreases when the film thickness increases.
Printed plates made of photopolymers prepared by digital lasers-
The size is 260 × 90mm and the thickness is 1. 7 mm.
Pressure between mesh rollers (6[cm. sup. 3][m. sup. -2]
Volume, resolution or decision of line 160 [cm. sup. -1])
The plate cylinder is 98.
All factors remain the same during the printing process (
Printing speed, Web roller and printing pressure).
Printing under controlled environmental conditions of 23 [degrees]
C. relative humidity 50% (RH). (25)
The representation quality test of printed matter measure the adhesion of dry ink film to cardboard by simple tape test.
The test tape is firmly attached to the print and quickly stripped by hand.
According to the ISO standard ,(26)
Adhesion should be quantified at least 16 hours later under 23 [conditions]degrees]C and 50% RH.
24 hours after printing, each sample was tested on two different overprint strips.
The adhesion is quantified by performing image analysis of the marks on the overprinted ink film and the marks on the tape (
Stick to the print)
Compared with the marks on the ink film of the original process ink and the marks on the tape without transfer ink.
Adhere to a five-step scale: 1--
The print looks unchanged, 2--
No change in the appearance of the print, no damage to the dry ink layer, only slight change in color, 3--
The appearance of the print has not changed, and in some places a small amount of loss of the dry ink layer is visible, 4--
Print the appearance of the change, remove the important part of the dry ink layer, 5--
The appearance of the print, the dry ink layer is almost completely removed by the tape.
For determining the optical density of full-tone area (i. e.
The area is completely covered with printed ink)
And determine the color composition of the specific ink [L. sup. *], [a. sup. *], [b. sup. *]
Optical density measurement of full-
Using a D50 light source use 2 [for tone areadegrees]observer,0[degrees]/45[degrees]
Measure geometry and polarization filters.
[Requirements]L. sup. *], [a. sup. *], [b. sup. *]
Using these settings, according to ISOstandard, there is no polarization filter. (27)
The result of the report is an average of at least six regions (
, Of which three color components ([L. sup. *], [a. sup. *], [b. sup. *])
Obtained on two different samples.
A week after printing, dry friction and wet friction dyeing of printed matter were studied using an ink friction tester (
TMI machines Canada)
According to the TAPPI Standard. (28)
Offset value test paper (
Kostrzyn, Arctic Paper, Poland)
Attached to the weight (0. 9 kg)
And automatically rub 100 times at the speed of 100 cycles [min. sup. -1]
Sample along the overprint. For the wet-
Measurement of friction resistance between the sample and the paper attached to the weight (0. 9 kg), 0. 1 mLof water (
Five drops of water)
It\'s on the sample. The dry-andwet-
Evaluate the friction resistance of the print by measuring [L. sup. *], [a. sup. *], [b. sup. *]
Value of sample after 30 rubcycles.
In addition, dry
The friction resistance is quantified by analyzing the color of the paper tape on the gray scale after 30, 50 and 100 cycles, provided that the sample is not damaged.
Two different overprint samples were measured.
Gloss of film and print was measured at 20, 60 and 85 [degrees]
Geometric conditions using microTri-
Data collection is performed at six different locations in the direction of the crossover and the Machine, and the reported values are the mean values of these measurements.
Results and discussion on the synthesis and representation of polymers this work through synthesis-
Open polymerization using dehomogenized 1-shrink glycerin
As the starting material;
BPG has an asymmetric structure.
In addition, the obtained BPG is used as a capacity-increasing agent, in which the surface interaction of the hydrophobic n-butyl chain in the BPG polymer with the plastic substrate, and the hydrophilic oh-terminal group interacts with water. based ink.
We before of work show that a of glycerol on run of, adhesion of and wet or dry-rub resistance. (29)
Figure 1 shows the formation of BPG-through the Yin ring-
Polymerization is triggered by shrinking glycerin. Deprotonated 1-
The polymerization reaction was carried out with ethanol as the initiator.
Four Structural units may be formed in supporting glycerin (20,30,31): linear1,3 ([L. sub. 1,3]), linear 1,4 ([L. sub. 1,4]), dendritic (D)
Terminal 1 and Terminal 2 ([T. sub. 1,2])units.
These structural units are determined [sup. 13]C NMR spectra (see Fig. 2).
The formation of linear, branch-like and terminal units was widely discussed in previous publications. (20)
As we all know, the second-order alcohol salt constitutes the first-order alcohol Salt. andit is well known that the second-order alcohol salt is more stable than the first-order alcohol salt, but has less activity.
If the main alcohol salt is multiplied with shrink glycerin ,[L. sub. 1,4]
The formation unit, if the second aromatic salt is transmitted [L. sub. 1,3]is created.
The branching D unitis produced when two oh-based react with the shrink glycerin. The[L. sub. 1,2]
By the addition of the proton exchange eor final acid, a unit with two oh bases is formed.
In addition, in [sup. 13]
C nmr spectrum, signal from the starting substance was observed: 14. 49 (C[H. sub. 3]),19. 52 (C[H. sub. 3]-[C. bar][H. sub. 2])and 13. 97 (C[H. sub. 2])ppm.
The classic transformation [L. sub. 1,3], [L. sub. 1,4], D and [T. sub. 1,2]
The unit of BPG is determined based on the data previously published. (20,22,30,32)
Methyl and methyl of the starting material (1-butanol)appeared at 0. 86, 1. 24-1. 36 and 1. 38-1.
49 ppm in the \'nmr spectrum.
The protons in the methyl group and the methane group of polyglycerin appear in multiples between 3. 2 and 3. 7 ppm.
Oh base appeared around 4. 4-4. 8 ppm.
In the infrared spectrum of bpg, there is an absorption band at 3374 [cm. sup. -1]
The features of the hydroxyl group can be observed.
Figure 3 shows MALDI-
Time of flight mass spectrometry of BPG. Theweight-
Average molecular weight ([M. sub. w]), number-
Average molecular weight ([M. sub. n])
More dispersed (PDI)
BPG determined by mass spectrometry, as shown in Table 1.
The mass increment of the repeat device is 74 Da, corresponding to the fragments of the glycerin.
BPG has low molecular weight ,[M. sub. w]=1200. From the [M. sub. w]
The number of repeat units of BPG is estimated to be about 15 monomer and 16 oh-based.
The multi-dispersion of BPG is very low, and PDI is 1. 3.
In this work, the quality of printing is determined as the attribute of printing (i. e.
, Optical density of all-tone area)
, Color value ([L. sup. *], [a. sup. *], [b. sup. *])
And gloss, and mechanical properties of printing (i. e.
Adhesion of dry ink film to plastic film and dry ink filmand wet-rub resistance).
Before printing, the ink under investigation (
After adding the original process ink and ink, 0. 01 BPG)
The test was performed using flowcup.
The printing requirements of the flexible version are 18-35 s(
Outlet diameter 4mm
According to a report published earlier. (1)
The flow time of the original process ink is 17.
0 s, the ink modified with BPG is 17. 1 s;
Therefore, the addition of aggregates has no effect on the flow time of ink, which we have observed before. (17,18)
Adhesion of ink film to base (
Plastic film or PET film)
In the light density, color value ([L. sup. *],[a. sup. *], [b. sup. *])
And measure the mechanical properties of the print.
It is necessary to evaluate the adhesion of the ink film to the base, because this parameter determines the quality of printing and the interaction between the stacked ink film and the base.
In industry, the adhesion of the ink film to the base is quantified using test tape. (26,33)
Adhesion is quantified on five-step scale;
The results are shown in Table 2.
The adhesion of the original process ink on the oPP Film is usually much better than that on the PET film.
Unfortunately, for ink modified with BPG, the adhesion of the dry ink film to the substrate is significantly worse.
Color value ([L. sup. *], [a. sup. *], [b. sup. *])
The optical density and gloss values are shown in Table 3.
Total color difference ([DELTA][E. sub. ab. sup. *])
Is from the equation (1)(34):[DELTA][E. sub. ab. sup. *]= [Square root]([DELTA]L). sup. 2]+[([DELTA][a. sup. *]). sup. 2]+ [([DELTA][b. sup. *]). sup. 2](1)where [DELTA][L. sup. *]= [L. sub. BPG. sup. *]-[L. sup. *],[DELTA][a. sup. *]= [a. sup. *. sub. BPG]-[a. sup. *]and [DELTA][b. sup. *]=[b. sup. *. sub. BPG]-[b. sup. *]
Is the difference between the ink value of adding BPG and the original process ink. The [L. sup. *]
Value is the measurement of the brightness of the object and quantified on the scale [L. sup. *]
= 0 perfect black diffuser and [L. sup. *]
= 100 perfect reflective diffuser. The [a. sup. *]
Value is the measure of health. positive [a. sup. *])or greenness (negative [a. sup. *]). The[b. sup. *]
The value is yellow (positive [b. sup. *])orblueness (negative [b. sup. *]).
The addition of BPG has increased [L. sup. *], [a. sup. *], [b. sup. *]
Sample values printed on OPP and pet Films, while [L. sup. *], [a. sup. *], [b. sup. *]
For over-printed oPP films, the value is double.
Value change from [L. sup. *]=24. 60, [a. sup. *]= -0. 42 and [b. sup. *]= -1.
50 send [original processing]L. sup. *]= 32. 85, [a. sup. *]= 1. 38 and [b. sup. *]= 2.
The ink of BPG was added.
Lowest value]DELTA][E. sub. ab. sup. *]
Pets observed as overprinted ([DELTA][E. sub. ab. sup. *]= 4. 0). The[DELTA][E. sub. ab. sup. *]
The value indicates whether the color difference is acceptable and can be observed by the naked eye.
Optical density is a basic parameter to describe the quality of printing.
The thickness of dry ink layer is evaluated by optical density;
The higher value refers to the thicker dry ink layer.
As we all know, the thickness of the dry ink layer depends on the degree of moisture of the printing ink to the substrate during printing: a better degree of moisture is related to a thinner dry ink layer and a lower light density.
Under normal circumstances, all-
BPG adds tone.
Compared with the overprinted PET film, the optical density of oPP Film overprinted with the original process printing ink is higher.
In addition, for over-printed oPP films, the optical density difference between the original process ink and the printed ink added with BPG is greater.
It can be seen that the addition of a small amount of the overrun Polyether changes the color properties of the printing ink film, which was also observed in previous studies. (17,18)
Gloss is one of the most important parameters in printing and packaging technology, because gloss affects printing quality by providing a better overall look and a greater depth of color. (35,36)
Gloss is the characteristic of a material that is responsible for the glow from the surface.
The measurement method of gloss depends on the type of base used.
The original printing ink is in the middle-
High gloss or half gloss
Gloss, so the gloss value is in other gloss units (GU).
Therefore, a measurement geometry with an angle of 60 [degrees]
Used according to ISO standard. (37)
Adding BPG to the process printing ink will increase the gloss of the print.
The difference is within the range of 7.
OPP prints and 9.
GU pet print.
The change of gloss values observed in previous works was greater, and the work studied the solvent flexo printing ink after adding 0.
01 overrun polyester. (17,18)
Colorfastnes4 shows the value [L. sup. *], [a. sup. *], [b. sup. *]
After 30 cyclesand wet-
Friction test of over-printed oPPfilm.
After 30 cycles, the dry ink film on the PET was damaged, which prevented the color measurement. The [DELTA][E. sub. ab. sup. *](30)
Calculate the value according to the equation (1)
, As a change between the values [L. sup. *], [a. sup. *], [b. sup. *]
Ink after 30 cycles and before rubbing. The [DELTA][E. sub. ab. sup. *](30)
The dry friction value of the ink adding BPG is much lower than that of the original printing ink; [DELTA][E. sub. ab. sup. *](30)= 0.
3 for inkwith with BPG and [added]DELTA][E. sub. ab. sup. *](30)= 1.
Processink of the month.
This difference may be due to the fact that BPG is a wax that improves the stain resistance to friction.
For printing inks, in addition to the adhesion between the dry ink layer and the substrate, the cohesion between the molecules in the dry ink film is also important. (38)
The addition of BPG increases the dry friction resistance, but does not improve the adhesion, so the cohesion in the dry ink layer is stronger than the adhesion between the dry ink layer and the plastic film base, due to the cross
Oh-based in the BPG molecule is hydrogen bonded with the resin in the printing ink. The wet-
Friction resistance of plastic film covered with water
Basic ink is usually very poor. (18)
In this case, the process printing ink is characterized by a better dyeing ability for wet friction [DELTA][E. sub. ab. sup. *](30)= 1. 0]
Than dry wipe [[DELTA][E. sub. ab. sup. *](30)= 1. 9]. The poorerwet-
Generally, the friction resistance of printing inks containing BPG may be related to the high solubility of polyglycerin in water.
According to agray scale as a function of the friction cycle, the stain values for dry and wet friction are listed in Table 5.
Paper tape color quantified with gray scale (1-5)
, Increased with the increase in the number of friction.
The over-printed oPP Film shows a slightly better resistance to friction dyeing than the over-printed PET film, which is expected because the adhesion of the printing ink to oPP is slightly better.
However, these prints are characterized by a higher resistance to dry friction than wet friction, which is typical for water
In addition, for printing inks containing BPG, better drying resistance and immersion dyeing can be observed.
The change of dyeing resistance to dry friction and wet friction is obvious;
For overprinted films, the process ink for adding BPG for dry friction is reduced from 2 to 1 and from 2.
5 for ink adding BPG, the process ink is 2 for wet friction.
In general, the addition of BPG in process inks improves the friction resistance of PET and oPP ink films.
Conclusion in the present study, asymmetric overspending of oligopolin with low molecular weight ([M. sub. w]= 1200)
As a performance additive for water-
The synthesis of polyglycerin bpg is described and the polymer is aligned for proper representation;
The structure of BPG is introduced.
The impact of BPG on print quality, I . E [L. sup. *], [a. sup. *], [b. sup. *]
Color value, optical density, full
The dyeing properties of Hue area and dry friction and wet friction were reported.
A comparison with the color metric parameters of process printing inks and plastic films covered with BPG-containing inks shows [differences]L. sup. *],[a. sup. *], [b. sup. *]values.
Overprint samples produced with printing ink containing BPG have a dyeing ability that is superior to dry friction and wet friction of the original process ink film.
In conclusion, the study of the overspent polyglycerin BPG can be used to modify water
Special for printing ink on plastic film.
Low-molecular overrun polyglycerin has a good application prospect in the printing market. DOI 10. 1007/s11998-014-9643-2Z. Zolek-Tryznowska ([mail]), J.
School of printing technology, machinery and printing, Faculty of production engineering, Warsaw Polytechnic University, Konwiktorska 2,00-
217 Warsaw, capital of Polandmail: z. tryznowska@wip. pw. edu. plM.
School of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego3, 00-
664 the national science center of Warsaw, Poland funded the study in accordance with the decision of December
Thanks to Michael Huber (Poland)
For ink samples.
Open access this article is distributed under the terms of the creative public offering license, which allows for use, distribution and production on any media, provided that the original author (s)
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Temperature and humidity for adjustment and testing (26. )
Bs en 15386: 2007 package.
Flexible laminated products and rubber tubes.
Test Method for Determining printing adhesion (27. )
ISO 13655: 2009, graphics technology--
Spectral measurement and color calculation of graphic art images (28. )
TAPPI T830, friction test of cardboard ink ,(2004)(29. )Zolek-
Tryznowska, Z, Izdebska, J, Tryznowski, M, \"supporting polyglycerin as a performance additive for water-
Flexo printing ink. \" Prog. Org. Coat. , (2014). doi:10. 1016/j. porgcoat. 2014. 07. 015(30. )
Rokicki, G, Rakoczy, P, Parzuchowski, P, Sobiecki, M, \"overrun fat obtained from environmental friendly monomer: carbonated glycerin\" Green Chem. , 2005 (7)529-539(2005)(31. )Cao, L-
C. , Mou, M. , Wang, Y. , \"overspending and Violet polyglycerin: preparation, photo-
Electrical discoloration performance. \" J. Mater. Chem. , 2009 (19)34123418(2009)(32. )
Cassel, S, Debaig, C, Benvegnu, T, Chaimbault, P, Lafosse, M, Plusquellec, D, Rolin, P, \"original synthetic straight line, Branchedand cyclic Oligoglycerol standard. \" Ear. J. Org. Chem. , 2001 (5)875-896 (2001)(33. )
Eldred, NL, what should the printer know about ink, version 3rd.
Pittsburgh Graphic Arts and Technology Foundation Press, Pennsylvania, USA (2001)(34. )ISO 7724-
3: 1984, paint and varnish--Colorimetry--
Part III: Calculation of color difference (35. )
Interaction in Jancovicova, V, Kindernay, J, Jacob Cova, Z, Mrllakova, I, \"iron ink. \" Chem. Pap. , 61 (5)383-390(2007)(36. )
Jancovicova, V, Mikula, M, Havlinova, B, Jacob Cova, Z, \"effects of ultraviolet rays\"
Polymerization kinetics of polyurethane acrylic coatings and curing conditions of gloss. \" Prog. Org. Coat. , 76 (2-3)432-438 (2013)(37. )
Paint and Varnish ISO 2813: 1994--
Determination of non-mirror gloss
Metal paint films of 20 degrees, 60 degrees and 85 degrees (38. )Zolek-
Tryznowska, Z, Izdebska, J, Gofitbek, M, \"ionic liquid as a performance additive for water-
Printing ink. \"Color. Technol. , 130 (4)314-318 (2014)----------
Please note: some tables or numbers are omitted in this article.