The covered film has a dazzling array of colors and multiple Layered structures designed to control light, temperature and moisture and repel insects. But high- Tech films are expensive and have only found niche markets so far. Now, the processor believes that co-extrusion, under-test and better on-site testing can make the market develop rapidly. growth track. Experimental fields in Florida, Pennsylvania, and elsewhere now look like the stars and stripes. They are bright and have experimental covering films in red, white and blue that are testing their effects on plant growth, crop yield, and even on the flavor and color of agricultural products. But the main role of color coverings is to extend the growing season so that domestic growers of tomatoes, melons and eggplants can compete with longer growing seasons in Latin America. These colored stripes on fruits and vegetables are a sign of the extensive creative efforts of processors, additive producers and university researchers dedicated to agricultural films. Thinner meters, higher line speeds, more complex Layers structure, new pigments and additive formulations are some of the methods that are being tested in the hope of convincing farmers to trade from plain black and white film to more sophisticated film-and pricier--products. In the past ten years The technology cover film has always been very good Tuning to manipulate sound waves through different resin layers, colors, and additives. Wavelength- Selective films can be increased for a few days or weeks during the growing season and increase crop yield by 20- 30% more than the traditional black covering, which retains only moisture and warmth and prevents weeds from growing. \"In the northeast of the United States. S. \"Or Canada, the benefits can be very significant-\" said Jodi Fleck --\" Arnold, senior product development engineer at Pliant Corp. Sick in Schaumburg. It is a large manufacturer of casting and blowing film. \"Color coverings can add a week or two to the growing season. \"But they are expensive, difficult to make, and the results are not consistent. Peter Bergholtz, owner of Ken, said: \"You may get 20% productivity a year, not the next year . \"Bar Inc. It is a distributor of agricultural films for mass reading. Down-and- When the covering film first appeared in early 1960, it was no longer dirty, the second product the PE diaper film manufacturer dreamed of, as it could be made on the same actor Film lines, even on the same flower roller. Most of the covers are now blown down, although some are blown down. Either way, it usually comes with small bumps to provide a sense of rubber and make it stretch on the soil. Although Sonoco Products are available in Hartsville, S. C. , makes HMW-HDPE versions. Most of the covers are black grass-proof film, White cold-proof film, or black and white grass-proof film. Israel took the lead in launching the first color film, Spectral transformation to increase plant yield. \"These movies are how Israelis make the desert bloom,\" Bergholtz noted . \". Europe introduced the color for the first time 10 years ago and is expected to have a market share of 20%. On the contrary, the colored covering is still developing to a large extent. But this can change as new multiple results emerge Annual live testing of color films. For example, Ampacet Corp. Six websites, including Penn State University, are being sponsored to test color films. Rock Springs in Pa, and the Univ. Appucca, Florida. These tests will help determine when and where color covers perform best. At the same time, the processor is faulty Measure the covering from 3 nails to 1 nail. 5 miles or 1- 2 miles to the score gauge. They are also busy developing new products such as \"hot\" colors. Hot Film allowed near Infrared rays enter the soil through the film, heating the soil more effectively than the traditional infrared rays Black absorbent film. For example, Pliant is developing a scoregauge, multi- Next spring will be put into a commercial layer, cast film. The company also plans to launch blue and hot- Olive movie next year Sonoco is commercializing 0. 4-0. 5 mil black film, a hot olive is being developed-green film. Reyenvas S. A. The maker of three children. A layer blown film in Seville, Spain uses a metallocene llannan to reduce the film gauge from 2 miles to a fraction gauge. The processor also increases the output by increasing the network width and line speed. Pliant Corp last spring. installed a $7- Millions of black Clawson- Film line in Washington, Georgia. , plant. The output of this line is so high that it replaces several old lines. To maximize this high productivity, Black Clawson designed a special automatic handling system to remove the finished roll from the winding machine and record the empty shaft. Photo- Selective plasticine Selectively covering the film allows light of a specific wavelength to pass through and absorb or reflect light of other wavelengths. The films are designed for specific crops, time of year, climate areas, rainfall, sunlight, altitude and insect exposure. Photo- Selective films include thermal substances and selective films that transmit infrared heat to the soil Reflective film (SRM) , While keeping the soil cool, reflect the ultraviolet rays back into the plant. The hot film is usually olive. green or brown. They can\'t be black because carbon black effectively absorbs all the light and then radiates up and down. Nor can they be white or silver, they reflect all or most of the light. The transparent covering film can be hot, or it can be a \"sun\" film through all the light. In any case, the transparent film produces extremely high temperatures below, killing weeds. SRM movies can be either colored or white. They contain clear chemical IR inhibitors that do not allow active photosynthetic radiation to pass through the membrane, so weed seedlings do not grow. In winter planting in the Northeast or south, temperature is most applicable. SRM film keeps the soil cool and most suitable for hot conditions in the South and Middle Summer in the northeast. In a hot climate like Florida, 140 kilometers (kilo-Langleys/year) Sunshine and 1. At 60 kilometers south, a photo -- The choice of color covering will make the soil too warm. In Florida, growers mainly use covers to control weeds and keep moisture in the soil. The typical Florida movie will be a single layer of white in the summer to cool the soil and squeeze the white with black at the end of the summer. Both black and white Florida movies require very high UV stability to withstand high temperatures. With only 120 of the sun in Pennsylvania, it is a great place for hot colored films to enter the soil. Because the hot color passes through instead of absorbing heat, the film stays cool than the black film and does not require UV stabilization. So movies designed for Florida will survive in Pennsylvania and vice versa. At higher altitudes where the sun is stronger, the film should absorb ultraviolet rays to avoid burning crops. In a cold climate, film coverage is often used in greenhouses. Glass or plastic greenhouse covers can use cheaper covers that do not contain special additives. However, the wavelength of transmission of glass and plastic is different. Therefore, in the development of covering film, it is necessary to consider the type of greenhouse covering, said John Wen mevin, sales manager of Hyplast Ltd. Pioneer of color covering in Hoogstraten, Belgium. For reasons not fully understood, the visible light reflected by the color film can promote the growth of fruits and vegetables, strengthen the stems of plants, encourage the growth of fruits on plants, and keep insects away. The development work of Penn State University uses green coverings to encourage the development of stronger plant stems to support more fruits. The covering of red and blue will obviously stimulate the pigment of the plant, which is the leaf of the plant at 580-700 nm range. Different proportions of \"Far Red (700-740 nanometers)and \"red\" (580-640 nanometers) Trigger different morphological reactions in plants and/or fruits, which helps to produce larger fruits. Latest color studies from the United StatesS. Dept. Agriculture in ClemsonC. It shows that the color film can even enhance the taste of some root vegetables like radish. The effect of film color is specific to a particular plant. Sonoco has obtained a special red color patented by the US Department of Agriculture because it has an effect on tomatoes and peppers. Red covering encourages tomato plants to produce more fruits by reflecting red and far red lightred spectrum (580-700 nm) Cut down the leaves and bear fruit. \"The green of pepper and melon is the best. The red and tomatoes are well matched. \"Blue is good for pumpkins and eggplants,\" said Michael o\'zoellick, professor of vegetable crops at Penn State University. His head is a car. funded color- Research projects. Professor, on the other hand. James Marion White of the University Florida has also obtained the Ampacet Fund to study the effects of color on plants, but no benefits of red, green or blue are found on the state\'s crops. Orzolek explained that color films were the most successful in cold areas of China. \"We saw a reaction to the color anywhere in Northern Virginia,\" he said . \". Silver, however, is another story. Silver- In melons and strawberries in the southeast, side covers are popular, and in midsummer, red or black covers become hot and burn out fruits. Soiplast S. A. The maker of three children. Lorca Murcia, Spain\'s layer blown cover film sells a large amount of silver/black film for melon grown in Spain, which is far away from the Red Army due to the hot climate. Clark plastic in Greenwood, Va. Make metal silver covering for vegetables. While the mechanism is not entirely clear, high-reflective silver drives away insects. It is believed that the reflected UV \"B\" wavelength would make the plants invisible to pests such as Jima, bees or white flies, so they would not land on the plants to spread mosaic viruses. But the reflective UV \"B\" wavelength also makes it difficult for bees to find flowers and pollinate them. But Solplast of Spain says it has found a way to create a balanced reflection ratio that \"covers\" white flies but does not cover bees. To help the processor customize the reflectivity of the silver film,. Shulman recently launched two silver films. The film concentrate is designed to provide a reflectivity of 35% to 55%. A total of yellow/brown films were sold in South America. Yel- The lower side attracts insects upward, while the brown part below maintains heat. When the movie heats up, it burns and kills insects attracted by yellow. Farmers can also put a yellow plastic strip in every fifth row of fields to take insects away from plants. Farmers then only need to spray the yellow line with 80% fewer pesticides. But plants and bugs are not the only species affected by color. The farm workers also responded. Silver covers can blind tractor drivers and white flies, a researcher noted. Silver is also very hot to work nearby. Meanwhile, Hyplast in Belgium has found that using red film in greenhouses in Northern Europe can cause headaches for workers, although tomatoes are a favorite. The new technique of layered coextrusion can also reduce the cost of the film and increase the function. For example, Pliant recently introduced a covering film with a wide white stripe on one side of black and on the other side, placing the expensive ti02 directly under the plant that needs it. Orzolek of Penn State University has come up with the idea of coextrusions in which the top or color breaks down and disappears at the end of the first planting to reveal the second color below. \"When planting in spring, you can apply blue on the white. \"As the summer heats up, the blue layer may disappear, leaving a white layer, which keeps the soil cool during the second planting in August,\" he suggested . \". The white layer reflects infrared light, so the new seedlings will not be too hot under the film. Such a structure is more economical because it gets two kinds of planting from one film device. Covering the film can also serve as a barrier to the injection of the toxic gas that kills bacteria into the soil-methyl bromide. This soil fumigation is important for many crops, including tomatoes, strawberries and tobacco. Although methyl bromide is good for crops, it is harmful to the atmospheric ozone layer. So regulators in California and several European countries are trying to phase out. A high- Barrier film covering the soil can allow farmers to reduce the use of methyl bromide. There are some alternatives to methyl bromide that are less harmful to ozone, but they are also less effective. Non-permeable coverings can improve their effectiveness by allowing these gases to come into contact with the soil for longer periods of time. In Europe, regulators have created a film classification called \"VIF ( Almost airtight film) , No more than 0 transmission. 2 g/hr of soil- Sterilization gas. An example of the VIF movie is the product of Hyplast in Belgium, believed to be only sevenlayer, high- Barrier film in the world. This blow film uses a double layer of mLLDPE around nylon and is constructed of mLL/tie/nylon/tie/mllim. Although it is made in Europe, the product is sold in the United States. S. Through a sister company, Klerks plastic products company in Fort Ritchie, USAC. The processor is considering more layers. For example, the new high of Pliantoutput mulch- The film production line in Georgia is the first installation of Black Clawson\'s new micro-layer feedback block, which can create up to 14 layers. The user adds layers by changing the pins in the feedback block to divide the existing layers into two. With it, Pliant has developed a new black and white film with zero transmission and a reflectivity of up to 60%. The Feedblock allows bending to stack a thin layer of up to four materials, increasing the opacity of the black layer and the reflectivity of the white layer, while allowing downward measurement relative to the traditional film. \"In such a thin film, it\'s hard to get zero transfer, and it\'s hard to get the black layer to show up in white,\" says Pliant\'s Fleck . \"Arnold. A few smaller United StatesS. Three manufacturers. Barrier Film for nylon/tie/PE or PE/nylon/PE. In the latter, nylon is mixed with a small amount of adhesive. William Hellmouth, senior product manager at Battenfeld Gloucester, said this reduces the barrier performance of nylon, but has it attached directly to the PE.