variability of urinary phthalate metabolite and bisphenol a concentrations before and during pregnancy.
Exposure may increase the risk of poor maternal and child health outcomes, but there is little data on the variability of urine biomarkers before and during pregnancy.
Objective: we describe the variability of urine phthal stone and BPA concentrations before and during pregnancy, and the ability of single-point urine samples to classify mean geographic exposure.
Methods: we collected 1,001 urine samples before and during pregnancy from 137 couples who attended the Boston fertility clinic and gave live birth.
There was a pool provided by women before. n [
Greater than or equal to]2)and during (n [
Greater than or equal to]2)pregnancy.
We measured the urine concentration of O-benzene monoacetate (MEP), mono-n-
N-acetate (MBP), mono-iso-
O-benzene Diester and O-benzene diester (MBzP)
Four metabolites of foreign direct investment(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), and BPA.
After adjusting the proportion, we use the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICCs)
Several alternative category analyses were performed to determine whether a single urine sample was able to adequately classify the mean pregnancy exposure.
Results: before and during pregnancy, the absolute concentrations of O-benzene Ester metabolites and bpa were similar.
During pregnancy, the variability of BPA and MBzP was higher than before pregnancy, but during and before pregnancy, the variability of pml, MEP and EDEHP was similar.
MEP during pregnancy (ICC =0. 50)and MBP (ICC: T. 0. 45)
Than BPA (ICC = 0. 12),MBzP (ICC = 0. 25)
, And ZDEHP metabolites (ICC = 0. 08).
Surropods analysis suggests that a single spot urine sample may reasonably classify MEP and pml concentrations during pregnancy, but one may be required for MBzP, DEHP, and BPA
Conclusion: before and during pregnancy, the concentration of O-benzene Ester metabolites and BPA in urine is variable, but the size of variability is biomarker specific.
During pregnancy, a single urine sample adequately classified the concentration of eth and MEP.
Current results may be related to the study of the unique features of women and it is recommended to replicate in other pregnant groups.
Key words: double phenol A, endocrine disruptors, epidemiology, benzene Ester, pregnancy, variation
120: 739-Environmental Health745(2012). [
Online January 19, 2012
O-benzene Ester and phenol (BPA)
It is a multi-functional compound used in a variety of commercial and industrial products.
Diethyl acetate (DEP), di-n-
And diester of neighboring benzene (BzBP)
Can be used in personal care and consumer goods to maintain odor and color [
National Research Council (NRC)2008].
Bp and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP)
It can also be used in the manufacture of floor, carpet backing, adhesive, wallpaper and PVC (PVC)plastics (NRC 2008).
BPA can be used for food tank liners, water supply pipes, medical pipes, hot receipts, and cigarette filters (
Wait, man. 2010; Chapin et al. 2008;
Jackson and Darnell 1985).
In the United States, it is almost common for people to come into contact with phenol a and neighboring benzene ester (Calafat et al. 2008;
Koch and Calafat 2009Woodruff etal. 2011).
Animal studies have shown that exposure to phthalate acid and bpa in pregnancy is associated with poor health outcomes (Chapin et al. 2008; NRC 2008).
Epidemiology studies suggest that exposure to some eyeballs and BPA may be associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes (Braun et al. 2009;
Miodovnik, etc. 2011; Swan et al. 2010).
However, the potential plot nature of the exposure, coupled with the transient biological half
The life of these compounds raises the question of whether a single spot urine sample is sufficient to classify BPAand phthalate exposure during pregnancy.
Changes in food consumption patterns may lead to internal
Phthalate and bpa exposed people may be transgender, while personal care products between different air and dust concentrations may use and move patterns in-
The person exposed by Phthalate may be transgender (Adibiet al. 2008; Preau et al. 2010; Ye et al. 2011).
The related changes in isobiological metabolism may contribute to changes in the concentration of BPA and neighboring benzene Ester metabolites in urine during pregnancy.
As far as we know, before and during pregnancy, there was no prior study to examine the variability in the metabolic concentrations of BPA and neighboring benzene Ester in the urine of the same woman.
A better understanding of the variability of urine neighboring benzene salts and BPA biomarkers can help researchers to determine the critical periods of development of these markers, such as exposure to neighboring benzene salts and BPA during pregnancy
The purpose of this study is to characterize the pattern, variability and repeatability of dehydrogen metabolic products, singlen-butyl (MBP), mono-iso-
Ester of neighboring benzene (MBzP)
, O-benzene monoacetate (MEP)
, And bpacentrations in a continuous urine sample of 137 women before and during pregnancy.
In addition, we determined whether single-point urine samples taken during the first, second or third months were able to accurately classify the average neighboring benzene Ester and BPA exposure during pregnancy.
This information will help to inform exposure assessment in epidemiology studies and help to evaluate human studies that classify these exposures using single-point urine samples.
Method female 18-
Recruited 45 years of age from partners seeking infertility assessment and treatment at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH)
The Fertility Center in Boston is between November 2004 and 2009.
The current analysis comes from a bigger prospect.
Cohort Study on environmental and reproductive health (EARTH)
This study aims to investigate the relationship between exposure to environmental chemicals and fertility/pregnancy outcomes.
The study was approved by the human research body Review Committee of the Harvard School of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
After the study nurse explained the study procedure, the subject signed an informed consent form and answered all questions.
Women included in this analysis were recruited before pregnancy (
Or before pregnancy)
Methods of conception include natural conception, induced ovulation in the same room at regular intervals, intrauterine fertilization or in vitro fertilization.
Women provided live urine samples of polyacetone at the time of registration, pre-pregnancy and during pregnancy for subsequent clinical appointment return (
One, two, three months or three months).
Registered urine samples are usually collected at the time of entry into the study and prior to fertility treatment.
C. Equal and specific proportion of urine (SG)
Use a hand-held Flamer calibrated with deionized water before each use (
Baltimore National Instruments, Maryland).
Samples are shipped to CDC fin for analysis on dry ice.
Fetal heartbeat was detected by vaginal ultrasound, confirming intrauterine pregnancy.
We used one of the three methods to estimate the risk of conception: the date of egg taking from the egg mother cells extracted from the medical record; crown-
Hip length, measured in fetal ultrasound 6 to 8 weeks pregnant;
Or a woman\'s last menstrual report.
When there is more than one dating method, priority is given to retrieving the date> Ultrasound> the last menstrual period.
In order to check the variability of urine neighboring benzene acid metabolic concentration before and during pregnancy, we restricted our analysis to those who gave birth to live babies and provided two or two copies before pregnancy
We excluded women with less than two urine samples in two or two time periods.
We measured the concentrations of diphenol a and eight interbrain metabolic products including pml, MiBP, MBzP, MEP, and the following four dehydrogen metabolic products: mono2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl)phthalate (MECPP),mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl)phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate (MEHHP), and mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP)
Use analytical chemical methods and quality control procedures described earlier. (Silva et al. 2007; Ye et al. 2008)
We limit our statistical analysis to DEHP metabolic products, pml, MiBP, MBzP, and mep because they have a high frequency of detection in the United StatesS. population(Silva et al. 2004; Woodruff et al. 2011)
Limit of detection (LOD)
For target phthalate metabolites, they are at a low microgram level in each Literature range (-0. 1 to -1 [micro]g/L)and 0. 4 [micro]g/L for BPA.
Gives a value smaller than LOD a value of LOD/[Square root ()term)]2(
Hornon and Reed 1990).
We applied the correction factor of 0. 66 and 0.
MEP and MBzP concentrations were 72, respectively, due to insufficient purity of the analytical standards used (
Personal communications Calafar).
Because DEHP is mainly metabolized to MEHP, MEHHP, MECPP and meohp, we used two methods of summary measurement:)
Total molar sum of all four metabolites and B)
Molar sum of three oxidized DEHP metabolites (
Meepp, MEHHP and MEOHP).
We calculated the molar sum of DERP metabolites by dividing each metabolites concentration by its molar mass and then summing the individual metabolites concentration.
We also studied the results of MEHP concentrations separately to facilitate the comparison with previous studies.
We explained urine dilution by using SG to standardize the concentration of urinary eyelet and BPA.
In all of our analyses, a modified and previously described formula is used to regulate urine dilution (Duty et al. 2005; Meeker et al. 2009).
We excluded samples with SG value> 1. 04 (Boeniger et al. 1993).
Use SG-for all statistical analysis
Standardized biomarker concentrations unless otherwise stated.
We first examine the socio-demographic features of women involved (
Means and proportion).
We calculated the median and 25th and 75th percentile of sg-
The first adjusted concentration of O-benzic acid metabolites and BPA (at enrollment)
And the last urine sample provided by the woman prior to pregnancy, as well as the sample provided for each pregnancy for three months.
We have calculated the internal features and correlations of single variables.
Female geometric average (GM)
Urine O-benzene Ester metabolites and bpacentrations in all pre-pregnancy and Pregnancy urine samples.
We also used a linear mixed model with [compare the difference in the concentration of O-benzic acid metabolites and BPA before and during pregnancy]log. sub. 10]-
As a result, the concentration of O-acid metabolites or BPA was transformed.
We include an indication variable to specify samples before or during pregnancy.
We estimated the percentage difference in pre-pregnancy concentration.
Analysis of variability
We performed three analyses to characterize the variability and variation of urinary adjacent acid metabolites and spatial concentrations before and during pregnancy.
These analyses use [log. sub. 10]-
Urine SC conversion
Due to its right side, the concentration of O-benzene Ester metabolites and bpa was adjusted
First, we calculate the coefficients before or during pregnancy for the two-acid ester and bpacentrations intraclassrelation of the variation of urinary metabolites (ICC)
Using random intercept-
Only linear mixed models.
ICC is a repetitive metric calculated by distinguishing between the following two
Topic variability by sumandwithin-
The range of values is from 0 to 1, indicating that production is not possible.
Represents a perfect reproduction (Rosner2000).
Next, we used a linear mixed model with the subject to estimate the percentage change in the concentration of urinary eye stones and BPA over time in the pre-pregnancy or pregnancy sampling framework
Fot pre-pregnancy samples we calculate the number of weeks after registration by subtracting the registration date from each subsequent collection date.
Set the registered urine sample to atime 0.
For pregnant samples, we calculated the number of weeks per urine sample since conception by subtracting the date of conception from the date of collection of each urine sample.
We estimate the change in the concentration of the two-acid ester and BPA-free of the thepercent metabolites with each4-
Time changes before and during pregnancy.
Finally, using the spaghetti chart, we drew a random sample of urine phthal stone and BPA concentrations in 50 women before and during pregnancy as a function of registration or post-conception time.
We evaluated the pattern and variability of urine dilution before and during pregnancy by using an unconverted SG value as a result of the above analysis, because of changes in urine dilution (i. e. , SG)
During pregnancy, the change in the concentration of neighboring benzene in urine may be due in part.
Agent category analysis.
We did three more analyses to test the rankings.
Among women of all three urine samples, the sequencing, predictive ability and consistency of single urinary phenoxyl metabolites and BPA concentrations during pregnancy (i. e.
One sample every three months).
First, we conducted a classification analysis (Hauseret al. 2004;
Mahalingaiah, etc. 2008).
Using three separate three-month GM for the concentration of neighboring benzene acid metabolites or BPA, we calculated three intervals for the average pregnancy exposure of women.
We then used a three-month period of pregnancy for women to divide them into three-month alternatives to the concentration of O-benzenate/BPA --
Specific concentration of urine.
We classify these women as one of these two measures.
We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV)
Between the top of the surrogate measurement and the top of the mean pregnancy measurement.
In the case of giving a high alternative measure, pv is classified as having the probability of a high mean pregnancy concentration.
We checked for three months.
Specific surrogate drugs that determine whether the sample collection time affects the predictive power of a single spot urine sample.
Second, we looked at alternative categories for three months of pregnancy --
A specific urine sample is associated with the average concentration of the maternal urinary phenacid metabolites or BPA (Meeker et al. 2005;
Start waiting. 2008).
Similar to the first analysis, we calculated the alternative tertiles for three months-
Specific concentrations of urinary neighboring benzene Ester metabolites/BPA (i. e.
, Agent category oflow, medium, high).
We then used the box chart to examine the distribution of mean pregnancy exposure in women (e. g.
GM of the concentration of all three urine biomarkers)
In these building categories.
For example, we calculated the average urine BPA concentration for each woman using values for all three periods of pregnancy.
Based on the first-
We classified the three-month urine BPA concentration in all women.
BPA concentration in urine for three months
We then mapped the distribution of the average urinary BPA concentration in the first-born female pregnancy
Pregnancy Surrogate tertile variable.
We then completed the same process in the second and third semesters.
If the rogate tertile variable provides a reasonable ranking, then we will see an increase in the average pregnancy BPA concentration in the three categories of alternative pregnancy (i. e.
, With the increase in the average pregnancy BPA concentration from the beginning to the secondtothird-
Finally, we tested whether women maintained the same level of exposure during pregnancy by calculating the number of times (
One, two, three)
Her urine sample concentration is in the same tertile for each of the neighboring benzene Ester metabolites or BPA.
For example, if all three urine samples of a woman are in the same place, she is assigned three.
We calculated the tertiles for every three months.
All analyses were performed using SAS 9. 2 (
SASInstitute, Cary, NC).
Descriptive analysis of the results.
In our study, there were 221 women living.
In our BPA analysis, two or more urine samples were provided by 137 women (
Table 1 (materials)
Moderate differences in biomarker differences are the highest for MEHP [
95% confidence intervals (CI): 8, 55%]
And the lowest BPA (
95% CI :-4, 17%).
Mep concentration decreased by 19% during pregnancy compared to pre-pregnancy (95% CI:-30,-6).
However, given the variability of the analytical chemical methods used, these differences are relatively small.
The concentration correlation of DEHP metabolites combined before and during pregnancy was low (Pearson R = 0. 33), MEHP(Pearson R = 0. 32), and BPA (Pearson R = 0. 39)than for MBP (Pearson R =0. 62), MiBP (Pearson R = 0. 55), MBzP (Pearson R = 0. 54), and MEP(Pearson R = 0. 62)(Table 2).
However, the correlation coefficient forMBP is attenuated (Pearson R = 0. 45)
When we ruled out the highest woman before pregnancy (12,860 [micro]g/L)and pregnancy (3,491[micro]g/L)
Pml concentration in urine.
Analysis of variability
Before pregnancy, the concentration of DEHPmetabolites, MBzP, BPA and SG was-
The relatively low ICCs demonstrated the difference in women ([
Less than or equal to]0. 35)(Table 3).
Over time, a graphical examination of the metabolic concentration of the female individual urine neighboring benzene acid supports this [
Figure 1. Seesupplem material (
Concentration of scallions (ICC =0. 40)and MEP (ICC = 0. 56)
The variables are small, but some women have changed the metabolic concentration of neighboring benzene acid in urine by an order of magnitude over time (Table 3;
See supplementary materials, figure 1).
Prior to pregnancy and during pregnancy, the concentration of the majority of uric acid metabolites showed similar variability (Table 3).
MBzP and bpa concentrations changed more during pregnancy than before pregnancy.
We also estimate the variability of MECPP before and during pregnancy to determine whether half-long DEHP metabolites
Compared with other DEHP metabolites, life changes are small (Koch et al. 2006).
Similar to the deep metabolites measurements summarized by the other two, the variability of urine MECPP concentrations was similar in both previous cases (ICC= 0. 19)and during (ICC = 0. 14)pregnancy.
Overall, phthalarc metabolites and bpacentrations in urine prior to pregnancy did not change over time, except for MEP and mbzp concentrations (Table 3).
The average concentration of MEP in urine decreased by 2% every 4 weeks (95% Cl: --4, 0%)
During pregnancy, the sum of the four DEHP metabolites, the sum of the three oxidized DEHP metabolites and the concentration of the hydrolysis monoester MEHP all decreased over time [Table 3;
Figure 2. Seesupplem material (
The estimated average recovery rate in the MEHP concentration is greater than the corresponding estimate for the sum of the three oxidized DEHP metabolites and all four DEHP metabolites.
Between the first and second months, the decrease in the metabolic concentration of DEHP in urine seems to be related to this trend (
See Supplementary Materials Table 1).
Because of our pasta.
See supplementary materials, figure 2)
Indicates that urinary DEHP metabolites decreased between the first and second months and then increased between the second and third months, we included a time
The square polynomial term in our model.
54% decrease in concentration (95% CI: -67, -37%)
An increase of 18% between 5 and 20 weeks of pregnancy (95% CI: -13, 62%)
Between 20 and 33 weeks of pregnancy.
During pregnancy, urine concentrations of eth, MBzP and SG did not change over time, but MEP concentrations increased slightly during pregnancy (3%; 95% CI: -1, 7%)(Table 3).
Agent category analysis.
In our classification analysis, the GM concentration of urine phenoxate metabolites was used as the hypothetical gold standard for pregnancy exposure, three months prior to pregnancy
In at least 54% of women, specific concentrations of neighboring benzene Ester metabolites and BPA accurately classify the highest levels of pregnancy exposure (Table 4).
PPVs in different periods are different depending on the adjacent acid metabolites and BPA.
For example, in the first three months of pregnancy, PPVs was the highest (PPV = 0. 70)
But the lowest in the second month (PPV = 0. 60). Second-and third-
Three months of accurate classification
Greater than or equal to]69% ofwomen.
The classification probability of the sum of DEHP metabolites and oxidized DEHP metabolites is similar to that of MEHP.
We observed that during the three months of three months, the average concentration of urinary stone/BPA increased during pregnancy
Specific concentration (Figure 1).
Of the three-month participants, the mean geographic location was the lowest in metabolites/BPA concentration
Specific samples were classified among the lowest and highest women.
However, the average range of pregnancy concentrations between adjacent alternative classes overlap for at least three months, as each of the neighboring benzene metabolites and bpa.
In our final alternative analysis, at least 77% of women had two or more urine samples during pregnancy that contained the same concentrations of O-benzic acid metabolites or BPATable 5).
During each of the three pregnancies, the proportion of women with all three urine samples belonging to the same category was 16% (for DEHP)to 2 6 % (for MBP).
Considering the variability of our analytical chemical methods, the absolute difference in urine concentrations of dehp metabolites, pml, MiBP, MBzP and BPA was relatively small before and during pregnancy.
The urine concentrations of eth, MBzP and MEP were almost positively correlated before and during pregnancy, while the correlation between DEHP metabolites and bpa was lower during these two periods.
Prior to and during pregnancy, the continuous urine concentration of BPA and some of the neighboring benzene Ester metabolites changed significantly.
Prior to and during pregnancy, the variability of most urinal acid-neighboring metabolites was similar, while the variability of BPA and MBzP increased during pregnancy.
During pregnancy, the concentration of DEHP metabolites in the urine decreased and the change was greatest.
During pregnancy, the concentration of MEP and MEP changed slightly, and the concentration of MEP and MiBP increased.
The variability of urine neighboring benzene Ester metabolites and bpacentration in our study participants was very similar to most previous studies, which collected more from the same individual in several weeks and monthsAdibi et al. 2008; Baird etal. 2010; Braun er al. 2011; Hauser et al. 2004; Irvin et al. 2010; Pecket al. 2. 010).
Previous studies of O-benzene Ester metabolites have shown similar patterns in which the concentration of MEHP varies the most, while the concentration of pml, MEP and MBzP varies less.
Concentration (ICC = 0. 21)
Among our study participants, pregnant women in New York City changed more than MEP concentrations (Adibiet al. 2008).
Population features and variations of exposure sources are possible.
Female variability across queues.
As far as we know, no study has been done to check whether the concentration of phthal stone and BPA is-
Before or during the pregnancy of the same woman, the variability of the person is different.
This suggests that physiological changes during pregnancy may affect absorption.
Distribution, metabolism or excretion of Phthal stone and BPA.
The absolute difference in the concentration of O-benzene Ester metabolites and BPA in urine is relatively small, suggesting that women do not change their behavior to reduce these exposures.
During pregnancy, we did not observe a continuous increase or decrease in most of the interbrain metabolites or BPA, suggesting that the urine concentration of these compounds is not affected by pregnancy --
Changes in drug generation dynamics.
However, the urine concentration of DEHP metabolites decreased during pregnancy.
Behavioral changes may be the reason for the decrease in urine dehydrogen metabolic product concentrations during the first and second pregnancies of pregnancy, as women may have started to eat more food after learning about pregnancy, which includes packagingRudelet al. 201 1).
The difference between the concentrations of O-benzene Ester metabolites and bpa in urine may be due to their exposure sources.
Dietis is considered to be the primary source of exposure to DEHP and BPA, mainly from PVC materials used in food processing/storage and polycarbonate food/beverage containers (Chapin et al. 2008; Lopez-
Cervantes and paselloLosada 2003;
Petersen and Yansen 2010; Von Goates and others. 20W).
Other sources exposed to BPA may include contact heat receipts (Braun et al. 2011;
Liao, Kanan 2011). Higherday-to-day and within-
The daily variability of dietary sources may be the reason for the high variability of urinary DEHP metabolites and bpa concentrations relative to MEP and pml concentrations, and its main sources include personal care and beauty products (Preau et al. 2010; Yeet al. 2011).
The longevity of DEHP metabolites is different and we observed similar variability of MEHP and MECPP, suggesting that the source of exposure may be more important than half
In repeated samples collected before and during pregnancy, MEP and pml concentrations were relatively stable and repetitive. Preau et al. (2010)
Eight adult volunteers reported that urine MEP concentrations during the day were variable, but showed similar patterns in the same person\'s days.
One possible explanation is that people use the same BP-and DEP-
Contains personal care or cosmetic products for similar times of day-to-day and day, which may be the reason why he is responsible for reducing the variability of the VOCs and deurinated metabolites associated with other neighboring benzene metabolites (Duty et al. 2005; Romero-Franco et al. 2011).
In addition, the neighboring benzene ester found in the personal care product will be absorbed by the skin for a long time and bypass-
Through the metabolism of the liver, this may increase their apparent half
Live and reduce variability in the concentration of metabolites in urine for a given day.
Our results suggest that in the second or third months of pregnancy, MEP and pml concentrations measured in a spot urine sample may reasonably expose the pregnancy to both DEP and BUP, respectively.
However, the repeatability of the samples collected in the first three months was greatly reduced.
Given that DEHP metabolites, MBzP and BPA are more variable, multiple samples may be required to fully classify exposure to these compounds during pregnancy.
Most sampling strategies do not completely eliminate all variations and still lead to some exposure classification errors.
There are at least two limitations to our alternative category analysis.
First, we assume that GM phthalate metabolites and BPA concentrations in three urine samples during pregnancy indicate exposure throughout pregnancy.
However, it is likely that we will not be able to capture additional sources of exposure and exposure variability.
In epidemiology studies, it is not possible to collect urine continuously, encouraging researchers to perform their own exposure validation where possible.
Second, due to the non-independence of substitution and average measurement, our alternative analysis may overestimate the accuracy of a single spot urine sample.
Other studies require more than three urine samples during pregnancy to determine whether a single spot urine sample that was not included in the mean exposure calculation could be accurately classified for geographic exposure.
The main advantage of this study is the availability of multiple urine samples obtained from the same woman before and during pregnancy.
In addition, we collected urine samples early in our pregnancy, enabling us to check for exposure and exposure variability throughout our pregnancy.
However, we are unable to detect the variability of BPA and eye stones during a specific pregnancy period, which may be important to identify key windows exposed during pregnancy.
According to the end point of interest, classified exposure in a narrow pregnancy window may be more relevant in the early stages of pregnancy, rather than throughout pregnancy (Ge et al. 2007).
While we are unable to estimate the variability within the narrower pregnancy window, our findings can be used to guide and evaluate the study to examine the exposure of neighboring benzene/BPA and maternal and infant health outcomes during pregnancy.
In view of the consistent magnitude observed in the studies conducted in the last few days to months of the phenoxyl metabolites/bpavariable, we believe that during pregnancy, the variability of the inner or narrow window will be similar to variability, especially considering the short half
Life and non-persistence of phthalates and BPA (Adibi et al. 2008; Baird etal. 2010; Braun et al. 2011; Hauser et al. 2004; Irvin et al. 2010; Pecket al. 2010; Preau et al. 2010; Ye et al. 2011).
The source population profile may affect the exposure of neighboring benzene Ester/bpa and its absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion.
As a result, these results may not be extended to other populations.
Women in this study came from higher socioeconomic status and were aware that the study was looking at the health effects of neighboring benzene Ester and other environmental chemicals.
These factors may increase the likelihood of behavioral changes before and during pregnancy, which cannot be observed in other source populations.
In addition, these women are older than the study subjects in natural conception couples and are the partners of couples seeking infertility treatment.
Physiological changes related to old age or sub-old age
Fertility may be the reason for some of the results observed in this cohort.
In conclusion, in this cohort, the concentration of urinary neighboring benzene acid metabolites and BPA before and during pregnancy is variable.
MEP and mbp concentrations changed less and were more relevant before and during pregnancy than DEHP metabolites, MBzP and BPA.
Our findings suggest that a single urine sample during pregnancy may allow for a relatively accurate classification of DPI and DEP exposure, but an accurate classification of DEHP, BzBP, and BPA exposure may require more
Our variability and alternative category estimates can be used to assess the extent to which the wrong classification of O-benzenate and BPA exposure may be biased towards the results in the epidemiology study.
Future studies should investigate the relative contribution of psychodynamic and behavioral factors to the variability of urinary phenomyl metabolites and bpacentration.
Address communication with R
Heather, 665 Huntington Avenue.
Building 1, 14 th Floor, Boston, United States, MA 02115. Telephone: (617)432-3326. E-
Mail: rhauser @ hohp. harvard.
We thank M for his technical assistance. Silva, E. Samandar,J. Preau, X. Ye, X. Zhou, R.
Henn ings and J. Tao [
Atlanta Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Georgia (CDC)]
In the measurement of the urine concentration of neighboring benzene Ester metabolites and double phenol.
This work is supported by T32 ES007069, ROI es0097 18 and p30 es0002 from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the grass leaf fund.
The findings and conclusions in this report are the findings and conclusions of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the CDC.
The authors claim that they have no actual or potential competitive financial interests.
Received on June 28, 2011;
Accepted January 19, 2012
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National Center for Environmental Sanitation, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; (4. )